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Ashtekar׳s generalization of Curie׳s principle and Kabir׳s principle in this volume shows that these principles are robust, obtaining in a variety of modifications of quantum theory. In this note, I illustrate how Wigner׳s principle can be similarly generalized. We give upper bounds for the spectral radius of a graph with e edges provided that there is no complete graph with e edges. Our bounds are sharp for (i) the complete graphs with one, two, or three edges removed; (ii) the complete graph with one added vertex and edge. A proper counting of states for black holes in the quantum geometry approach shows that the dominant configuration for spins are distributions that include spins exceeding one-half at the punctures. This raises the value of the Immirzi parameter and the black hole entropy. However, the coefficient of the logarithmic correction remains −1/2−1/2 as before. In this paper, the author gives an elementary proof Beats Audio Canada of the theorem that each Desarguesian affine space is a vector space over a division ring and each Desarguesian projective space is the subspaces of a vector space over Beats Audio a division ring and conversely. A geometric characterization of the characteristic of a division ring is also given.